Thymosin α-1 is a major component of Thymosin Fraction 5 and is responsible for restoring and modulating immune function, particularly cell-mediated immune function. Recent studies showed that Thymosin Alpha-1 molecule increased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-1 and Toll-like receptor expression as well as cytokine production, suggesting its immunoregulatory role.
It is an FDA approved medication under the trade name zadaxin after it received orphan drug approval status. It is widely used and studied in multiple types of cancer and viral illnesses. Some physicians are using thymosin for chronic fatigue and Lyme disease as well as autoimmune function as well.
TA 1 is thought to modulate the immune system by augmenting T-cell function. TA1 may affect thymocytes by stimulating their differentiation or by converting them to active T cells. TA1 is rapidly absorbed, achieving peak serum concentrations within two hours.