Peptide
Thymosin Alpha-1

 

Thymosin Alpha-1

Thymosin α-1 is a major component of Thymosin Fraction 5 and is responsible for restoring and modulating immune function, particularly cell-mediated immune function. Recent studies showed that Thymosin Alpha-1 molecule increased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-1 and Toll-like receptor expression as well as cytokine production, suggesting its immunoregulatory role.
It is an FDA approved medication under the trade name zadaxin after it received orphan drug approval status. It is widely used and studied in multiple types of cancer and viral illnesses. Some physicians are using thymosin for chronic fatigue and Lyme disease as well as autoimmune function as well.
TA 1 is thought to modulate the immune system by augmenting T-cell function. TA1 may affect thymocytes by stimulating their differentiation or by converting them to active T cells. TA1 is rapidly absorbed, achieving peak serum concentrations within two hours.

CLINICAL RESEARCH:

Thymosin Alpha 1: Biological activities, applications and engineering production
Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1), a 28-amino acid peptide, was first described and characterized from calf thymuses in 1977. This peptide can enhance T-cell, dendritic cell (DC) and antibody responses, modulate cytokines and chemokines production and block steroid-induced apoptosis of thymocytes. Due to its pleiotropic biological activities, Tα1 has gained increasing interest in recent years and has been used for the treatment of various diseases in clinic. Accordingly, there is an increasing need for the production of this peptide. So far, Tα1 used in clinic is synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis. Here, we summarize the genetic engineering methods to produce Tα1 using prokaryotic or eukaryotic expression systems. The effectiveness of these biological products in increasing the secretion of cytokines and in promoting lymphocyte proliferation were investigated in vitro studies. This opens the possibility for biotechnological production of Tα1 for the research and clinical applications.

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