RG3, Methylcobalamin, NAD+


RG3, Methylcobalamin, NAD+

RG3 is a Panax ginseng that has been used in oriental countries for its pharmacologic effects, such as antidiabetic, neurological, and anti-inflammatory activities. Neuroinflammation is associated with activation of the central nervous system (CNS) glia with significant cytokine and chemokine production, infiltration of immune cells, edema, increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and breakdown. Ginsenoside 20(S) RG3 is one of the many active ingredients of ginseng saponins. RG3 is a ginseng known for aiding chronic inflammation. Specifically, RG3 has been shown to reduce chronic neurodegenerative inflammation, the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Methylcobalamin and NAD+ are combined with RG3 to enhance its effects. Target treatments for RG3/Methylcobalamin/NAD+ include aging, traumatic brain injury (TBI), Alzheimer’s, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and hypertrophic scar formation. RG3 also has promising views for treatment in ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and other cancers as well.


Suppressive Effect of Ginsenoside Rg3 against Lipopolysaccharide- Induced Depression-Like Behavior and Neuroinflammation in Mice
Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), a major active ingredient enriched in red ginseng, possess well-confirmed
immunoregulatory effects. Immune disturbance is a common trigger and aggravating factor in depression. The aim of this study was to explore the effects on Rg3 on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced depression-like behavior in mice and the involvement of immune regulation. Pretreatment with Rg3 (i.g., 20 and 40 mg/ kg) effectively ameliorated LPS (i.p., 0.83 mg/kg) induced body weight loss, anorexia, and immobility time in both the tail suspension test and the forced swimming test.
Rg3 attenuated the disturbed turnover of tryptophan and serotonin in the hippocampus, accompanied by decreased mRNA expression of cytokines and indoleamine-2, 3- dioxygenase (IDO). These central benefits were partially linked to the regulation of microglia activation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathway. In addition, Rg3 significantly reduces LPS-induced elevation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in plasma and restored the systemic balance of tryptophan-ky-nurenine metabolism. Taken together, our results demonstrated the Rg3 was effective in ameliorating depressive-like behavior induced by immune activation, adding new evidence to support its health benefits by immunoregulation.

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